Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a critical examination of the effects of a project on the environment. Any proponent of a project should conduct an EIA and prepare a report and submit to NEMA. The EIA must be done by a registered and licensed EIA/EA expert by NEMA. The EIA must be conducted before the commencement of the project. The fee payable to NEMA is 0.1% of the project cost. It is therefore an offence to commence any project under schedule II of EMCA without an EIA license.

The goal of an EIA is to ensure that decisions on proposed projects and activities are environmentally sustainable. It guides policy makers, planners, stakeholders and government agencies to make environmentally and economically sustainable decisions. It is therefore a legal requirement to carry out an EIA before commencement of the project. The EIA process requires that a proponent shall seek views of persons who may be affected by the project. The proponent shall be issued with an EIA license before commencement of the project.

Environmental Audit (EA)
Environmental Audit (EA) is the systematic documentation, periodic and objective evaluation of activities and processes of an ongoing project. . The purpose of EA is to determine the extent to which the activities and programs conform to the approved environmental management plan. An initial environmental audit and a control audit are conducted by a qualified and authorized environmental auditor or environmental inspector who is an expert or a firm of experts registered by NEMA. In the case of an ongoing project NEMA requires the proponent to undertake an initial environmental audit study to provide baseline information upon which subsequent environmental audits shall be based. The proponent shall be issued with an acknowledgement letter and an improvement order where necessary.

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